Scores for the Middle and Upper Levels are calculated by adding one point for each correct answer and zero points for each omitted question, and by subtracting one-quarter of one point for each incorrect answer. The number of answers scored as right, wrong, and omitted on each subsection of the test constitute the raw score for that subsection (subscore). Raw scores from different editions of the test cannot be compared directly to each other.
The raw score is converted to a score on the 440-710 Middle Level scale or 500-800 Upper Level scale, which is called the scaled score. This is the score that appears on the student’s score report. The scaled score yielded by a raw score can vary slightly from one edition of the test to another. This is due to small differences in difficulty among different editions. A statistical procedure called “equating” is used to adjust for these small differences.